Perhaps the simplest way is to deploy separate wireless networks. This works well when the public areas are in their own physical areas, such as a lobby or a training room. You can often arrange your access point placement so the signals between your private and public areas rarely overlap, so even if a would-be hacker were in your facility, the network available to him would never touch your internal network.
When you can't physically separate the spaces — for example, maybe your staff needs to access the internal systems when in the training room — you might still be able to deploy two sets of access points, each connected to a separate network. Visitors would be able to use the public network without signing in, while your employees would be able to sign in to the internal network only if their systems were using, say, WPA or RADIUS authentication. However, having multiple access points in te same area can lead to signal interference, even if the access points are set to different frequencies (called channels) within the access points' range.
Another way to separate the networks is to use access points and switches that support virtual LANs. Each virtual LAN acts like a separate network, with its own SSID, access permissions, and security settings. Your switches and access points keep track of which users are linked to which VLAN, so their traffic follows that VLAN's rules and never mixes with another VLAN's traffic. This approach works well when you can't have separate physical wireless LANs in the same space because of radio interference or power issues.
With all three approaches, you add additional separation between the (virtual) networks by using access points that support 802.11a and 802.11g frequencies, so the public VLAN uses the 802.11g frequencies and the internal VLAN uses the 802.11a frequency. This reduces the chances of someone being able to even connect to your private network in an attempt to break in. (If a visitor has a laptop equipped with a dual-mode radio, which supports both 802.11a and 802.11g, this protection of course goes away, and you can rely only on your internal network's security settings. Also note that 802.11b equipment works fine on 802.11g networks, and vice versa.) Of course, it means equipping all your employees and internal devices with 802.11a-based equipment, which are harder to find and more expensive.
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